Hippocampal Anandamide, OEA and PEA were increased after social exposure (Kerr et al., 2013) once more stipulating the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in autism.
OEA is actually the strongest endogenous activator of GPR119 and was shown to reduce food intake and weight gain in rodents via PPARα and TRPV1 (Overton et al., 2006).
In a mouse model of depression, chronic unpredictable mild stress causes depression-like behavior, atrophy of hippocampus and frontal cortex and increases corticosterone levels. Oral application of OEA (1.5 – 6 mg/kg) reverted these effects suggesting therapeutic potential for OEA in the treatment of depression (Jin et al., 2015).
Functional Gastro-Intestinal Disorders
In patients with diarrhea-type IBS higher levels of 2AG and lower levels of OEA and PEA were found. In contrast, patients with constipation-type IBS had higher levels of OEA and lower levels of FAAH. Also, PEA levels were inversely correlated with abdominal pain suggesting substantial involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of IBS (Fichna et al., 2013).
cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 are upregulated and Endocannabinoids like AEA, 2-AG, OEA and PEA show increased levels after cerebral ischemia (England et al., 2015; Lara-Celador et al., 2013).
In a model of maternal separation, sleep reduction has been related to the endocannabinoid system through the expression of CB1 in the prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus while oleamide improved sleep in adult rats (Reyes Prieto et al., 2012).
endocannabinoids such as OEA bind to GPR119 to increase cAMP (signals high energy/glucose content to a cell), stimulate insulin secretion and cause fat deposition (Overton et al., 2006). OEA reduced food intake and weight gain in rodents via PPARα and TRPV1 (Overton et al., 2006).
In a mouse model of Parkinson’s, OEA (at 5mg/kg) protected dopaminergic neurons from degeneration in a PPARα-dependent way (Gonzalez-Aparicio et al., 2014). Similarly, systemic application of OEA, and to a lesser extent PEA, was found to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines and thus to protect against neurodegeneration (Sayd et al., 2014). In another study, OEA reduced L-dopa-induced-dyskinesia in a TRPV1-dependent way (González-Aparicio and Moratalla, 2014).
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Sayd, A., Antón, M., Alén, F., Caso, J.R., Pavón, J., Leza, J.C., Rodríguez de Fonseca, F., García-Bueno, B., and Orio, L. (2014). Systemic administration of oleoylethanolamide protects from neuroinflammation and anhedonia induced by LPS in rats. Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. Off. Sci. J. Coll. Int. Neuropsychopharmacol. CINP 18.